The Four temperament theory is a proto- psychological theory that suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: The Greek physician Hippocrates c. Though modern medical science does not define a fixed relationship between internal secretions and personality, some psychological personality type Choleric temperament test use categories similar to the Greek temperaments. Temperament theory has its roots in the ancient four humors theory.
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It may have origins in ancient Egypt  or Mesopotamia but it was the Greek physician Hippocrates — BC who developed it into a medical theory.
He believed certain human moods, emotions and behaviors were caused by an excess or Choleric temperament test of body fluids called "humors": The word "temperament" itself comes from Latin " temperare ", "to mix".
In the ideal personality, the complementary characteristics of warm-cool and dry-moist were exquisitely balanced. In four less ideal types, one of the four qualities was dominant over all the others. In the remaining four types, one pair of qualities dominated the complementary pair; for example, warm and moist dominated cool and dry. These latter four were the temperamental categories Galen named " sanguine ", " choleric ", " melancholic " and " phlegmatic " after the bodily humors, respectively.
Each was the result of an excess of one of the humors that produced, in turn, the Choleric temperament test in paired qualities. In his Canon of Medicine a standard medical text at many medieval universitiesPersian polymath Avicenna — AD extended the theory of temperaments to encompass " emotional aspects, mental capacity, moral Choleric temperament test, self-awarenessmovements and dreams.
Nicholas Culpeper —described the humours as acting as governing principles in bodily health, with astrological correspondences,  and explained their influence upon physiognomy and personality.
Hans Eysenck — was Choleric temperament test of the first psychologists to analyze personality differences using a psycho- statistical method factor analysisand his research led him to believe that temperament Choleric temperament test biologically based. The factors he proposed in his book Dimensions of Personality were neuroticism Nthe tendency to experience negative emotions, and extraversion Ethe tendency to enjoy positive events, especially social ones.
By pairing the two dimensionsEysenck noted how the results were similar to the four ancient temperaments. Examples are DiSC assessmentsocial styles, and a theory that adds a fifth temperament.
Finally, the Interaction Styles of Linda V. Modern medical science has rejected the theories of the four temperaments, though their use persists as a metaphor within certain psychological fields.
Most individuals tend to have aspects of their personality that identify with each of the four temperaments. However, there are usually two primary temperaments that are displayed at a significantly higher level.