A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. The magnetic stripe, sometimes called swipe card or magstripeis read by swiping past a magnetic reading head.
Magnetic stripe It magnetic strip works are commonly used in credit cardsidentity cardsand transportation tickets.
Magnetic recording on steel tape and wire was invented in Denmark around for recording audio. InIBM used the magnetic tape idea to develop a reliable way of securing magnetic stripes to plastic cards,  under a contract with the US government for a security system. They also provide the standards for financial cards, including the allocation of card number ranges to different card issuing institutions. Magnetic storage was known from World War II and computer data storage in the s.
In Forrest Parryan IBM engineer, had the idea of securing a piece of magnetic tape, the predominant storage medium at the time, to a plastic card base. He became frustrated because every adhesive he tried produced unacceptable results. It magnetic strip works tape strip either warped or its characteristics were affected by the adhesive, rendering the tape strip unusable. After a frustrating day in the laboratory, trying to get the right It magnetic strip works, he came home with several pieces of magnetic tape and several plastic cards.
As he walked in the door at home, his wife Dorothea was ironing clothing. When he explained the source of his frustration: He tried it and it worked. Inthe It magnetic strip works organization was transferred by IBM DPD back to the Information Records Division in order to begin sales and marketing strategies for the magnetically striped and encoded cards being developed.
This conversion enabled the computer to monitor and control the entire production process the IRD engineers designed and built. This tightly secured area with limited access was required because of the sensitivity of the data that would ultimately be used to encode and emboss the credit and ID cards. The IRD engineers first had to develop a reliable process of hot stamping the magnetic stripe to the plastic cards. Other members of the group were N.
The code would also be used for production and inventory control of products. Because of the sensitivity of the customer data and the security requirements of banks, insurance companies and others, the manufacturing group decided to leave the entire line in the secured area where it was developed.
Banks, insurance companies, hospitals etc. They also supplied the data information which was to be encoded and embossed on the cards. This data was supplied to IRD on large 0. This operation of applying the magnetic stripe to the plastic cards was done off line in another area of IBM IRD and not in the secured area. The cards were then brought into the secured area and placed in "hoppers" at the beginning of the production line. The tape reels containing the data were then installed on the modified IBM computer prior to beginning the encoding, embossing and verification of the cards.
After the performed a check to verify that It magnetic strip works systems and stations were loaded and ready to go, the computer began feeding the Magnetic Striped Plastic Cards from the hoppers at the front end of the production line down a motorized track.
The entire operation was fully automated and controlled by the modified IBM business computer. The line consisted of the following stations and operations:. This completed the manufacturing line for the magnetic striped encoded and embossed plastic credit and badge access cards. The envelopes were then taken to be posted and mailed directly to the customers of the companies who had ordered the cards from IRD. They laid the foundation for the entire magnetic stripe card industry that we know and use today through our use of credit cards, ATM cards, ID cards, hotel room and access cards, transportation It magnetic strip works, and all the terminals and card readers that read the cards and enter the data into computers.
It magnetic strip works developments resulted in every person having the ability to easily carry a card that connects them directly to computers with all the ramifications thereof.
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Neither IBM nor anyone else applied for or received any patents pertaining to the magnetic It magnetic strip works card, the delta-distance barcodes or even the Uniform Product Code UPC. IBM felt that with an open architecture, it would enhance the growth of the media thereby resulting in more IBM computers and associated hardware being sold.
A wider magnetic stripe enabling multiple tracks of encoding along with new encoding standards was required. Other groups within IBM and other companies continued on with expanding the work done by this small group of engineers at IBM IRD, however, the contributions that these IBM IRD engineers made to the development of the magnetic stripe card is analogous to the Wright Brothers' contribution to the airline industry of today.
There were a number of steps required to convert the magnetic striped media into an industry acceptable device. In most magnetic stripe cards, the magnetic stripe is contained in a plastic-like film. It magnetic strip works magnetic stripe is located 0.
The magnetic stripe contains three tracks, each 0. Tracks one and three are typically recorded at bits per inch 8.
Each track can either contain 7-bit alphanumeric characters, or 5-bit numeric characters. Track 1 standards were created by the airlines industry IATA.
Track 2 standards were created by the banking industry ABA. Track 3 standards were created by the thrift-savings industry.