The utilisation of ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge is vital in male sexual reproductive health care delivery in western Uganda.
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Reproductive health care is the second most prevalent health care problem in Africa. However, this concept of reproductive health care has been focusing mainly on women disregarding men.
This study was carried out mainly to document medicinal plants used in the treatment of sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction disorders in western Uganda. The medical ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge were collected by visiting traditional healers and documenting the medicinal plants used and other socio-cultural aspects allied with sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction.
The methods used to collect the relevant information regarding the medicinal plants used included informal and formal discussions, field visits and focused semi-structured interviews. Thirty-three medicinal plants used in the management of sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction were documented and Citropsis articulata and Cola acuminata were among the highly utilized medicinal plants.
From the researchers' point Sexual weakness medicine in ghana view, the usage of herbal remedies in managing male sexual disorders is useful because of long cultural history of utilisation and the current renewed interest in natural products to sustain health globally. As a way recognising the values and roles of traditional medical knowledge in health care provision, further research into the efficacy and safety of herbal remedies in male sexual disorders is precious in Uganda and beyond.
More so, the establishment of rapport between relevant government department in Ministry of Health, modern health workers through collaborative and networking ventures with traditional healers under close supervision and monitoring of herbal treatments is noble.
This is an indication that herbal medicine is important in primary health care provision in Uganda. There are several reproductive Sexual weakness medicine in ghana that local communities have been handling and treating for ages such as sexual impotence and erectile dysfunction ED.
The concept of reproductive health care has been focusing mainly on women disregarding men and yet men are part. Roper 29 defines erectile dysfunction as the total inability to achieve erection, an inconsistent ability to do so, or a tendency to sustain only brief erections premature ejaculation.
Pamplona-Roger 27 defines impotence as the inability to finish sexual intercourse due to lack of penile erection. These variations make defining ED and estimating its incidence difficult. For purposes of this publication, since ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge IK cannot clearly distinguish between these two terms, then erectile dysfunction and sexual impotence are both used. The local people who are providers of this information are not in position to classify Sexual weakness medicine in ghana two conditions.
The estimated range of men worldwide suffering from ED is from 15 million to 30 million Bythat rate had nearly tripled to This is in USA, where statistics are clearly compiled, the level of awareness and education is high as compared to sub Saharan countries like Uganda.
This is a clear indication that there are many silent men, particularly couples affected by ED. Reproductive Health care is the second most prevalent health care problem on African continent 4.
Reproductive health care did not appear on the health agenda until recent after the Cairo conference on population and the Peking conference on women that it indeed became a live issue 4. In some instances RH certainly includes the RH needs of the youth or adolescents.
According to Uganda's health policy priorities 825men's reproductive health is not given any mention. The sexual and reproductive health rights in Uganda focus on maternal and child mortality, family planning and the like exclusive of men's sexual needs and rights 8.
The causes of ED are varies from one individual to another.
For whatever cause, since an erection requires a precise sequence of events, ED can occur when any of the events is disrupted. This sequence includes nerve impulses Sexual weakness medicine in ghana the brain, spinal column, and area around the penis, and response in muscles, fibrous tissues, veins, and arteries in and near the corpora cavernosa Thus, ED causes reported include, damage to nerves, arteries, smooth muscles, and fibrous tissues.
These are often as a result of diseases, such as diabetes, kidney disease, chronic alcoholism, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vascular disease, and neurologic diseases that account for about 70 percent of ED cases NIH 23 reported that between 35 and 50 percent of men with diabetes experience ED.
NIH 23 further reported that the usage of many common medicines such as blood pressure drugs, antihistamines, antidepressants, tranquilizers, appetite suppressants, and cimetidine an ulcer drug can produce ED as Sexual weakness medicine in ghana side effect. Nevertheless, psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, guilt, depression, low self-esteem, and fear of sexual failure cause 10 to 20 percent of ED cases.
In addition, men with a physical cause for ED frequently experience the same sort of psychological reactions stress, anxiety, guilt, depression Other possible causes are smoking, which affects blood flow in veins and arteries, and hormonal abnormalities, such as not enough testosterone The availability of Viagra has brought millions of couples to ED treatment. Oral testosterone can reduce ED in some men with low levels of natural testosterone, but it is often ineffective and may cause liver damage Other drugs such as Yohimbine, papaverine hydrochloride [used under careful medical supervision] 5phentolamine, and alprostadil marketed as Caverject widen blood vessels.
However, this available modern medication for the ED in men is very expensive for most of the rural people in Ugandan and other developing countries.
Yet, in traditional medicine, there are several medicinal plants that have been relied on for use in the treatment of ED. This ethnobotanical indigenous knowledge has not been earlier documented and scientifically validated for efficacy and safety, future drug discovery and development. Therefore, this particular study was carried out purposely to document medicinal plants used by traditional medical practitioners to treat ED and sexual impotence and other male erectile related conditions in western Uganda.
This manuscript only covers the ethnobotanical documentation of Sexual weakness medicine in ghana plants used in the management of erectile dysfunction excluding the socio-cultural aspects. The socio-cultural aspects in details will be presented in the next manuscript covering the broad range of reproductive health ailments management using the indigenous knowledge in western Uganda.
The sampling sites were located in the parishes around the biosphere reserve, and in the selected fishing villages within the biosphere reserve. The study was conducted between April and March in western Uganda.
To collect this data indirect asking of questions and investigations that do not refer or offend anyone Sexual weakness medicine in ghana used since nobody especially men can say openly that they have this problem. These methods are explained in the textbook of ethnobotany and others have been used in the field for this kind of studies in Uganda and elsewhere in the world 10Sexual weakness medicine in ghana1314 These methods included visiting the traditional healers to document the indigenous knowledge IKregarding medicinal plants used, gender and socio-cultural aspects and where the plants are harvested.
Informal and formal conversations, discussions and interviews, market surveys and field visits were conducted. The informal conversations were held with the specialist resource users and other knowledgeable people on particular ailments.
The meeting places were the gardens, women group meetings, at their homes, and any other places convenient to them. Through conversations, the sources of knowledge of the healers on medicinal plants, the medicinal plants used and changes in the availability of medicinal plants were established.
Those who were more knowledgeable were later followed and interviewed further especially the TBAs, and some knowledgeable men healers.
Focused discussions were held with them later for formal recording. In some instances, young mothers were visited too. This was done to verify the information gathered and the spread of the indigenous knowledge IK in reproductive health care among the different reproductive groups particularly on ED management. The semi-structured interviews and discussions were held with the specialist resource users and other knowledgeable people on particular ailments by use Sexual weakness medicine in ghana interview schedules for each respondent.
Interviewed people were mainly the herbalists both men and women and TBAs. In this selection to some extent, ethnic groups were recorded where possible because different people use the same plants differently. The time and Sexual weakness medicine in ghana of interviews were arranged according to the schedules of the respondent. Depending on where the interviews and discussions were held, recording was done immediately or afterwards or appointments were made for more details in a more convenient place arranged with the respondent.
Key informants were identified and later interviewed separately and even followed for further details. Some of the key questions asked included, name of the respondents, the village or parish or sub-county he or she was coming from, diseases treated, plant local names used, parts harvested, methods of preparation and administration.
In addition, ingredients and incantations with which the plants are used for preparation and where the herbal medicines were harvested were documented. The field visits and excursions were arranged with the healers for places far from their homesteads or took place concurrently with the interviews and discussions. When going to the forests, game reserves or other areas where herbalists collect plant specimens, prior arrangements were made with Sexual weakness medicine in ghana community leaders and park staff.
This was done with individuals or groups depending on where the herbs are collected. In the shared areas such as the fishing villages, or the multiple use areas, group and individual excursions were conducted.
Some of the medicinal plants that are harvested from distant places such as the Democratic Republic of Congo, other districts and unsafe areas within the reserve were not collected Sexual weakness medicine in ghana their local names were recorded.
The data collected were to supplement the information on plant names, plant parts used, collection of the herbarium voucher specimens and conservation status of these medicinal plants.