The objective of this study was to investigate the psychometric attributes of the scale at a national level. The Item Response Theory showed that STLS has highly discriminative items, assessing a large share of the population, although low difficulty was applied.
We suggest keeping complex items in the scale in order to maintain a reliable and Triangular love scale measure of love.
Measuring love is something that has been considered impossible. However, even if love is a feeling treated as mysterious, everyone has the realization that sometimes they love more and sometimes less, which shows that the phenomenon exists in different quantities.
Love is something that exists. As it exists, it exists in a certain quantity.
To try to discover the amount or intensity of love that exists in each person is to perform measurements. The difficulties inherent in the measurement of love are practically the same difficulties inherent in the measurement of intelligence, personality, depression and other objects traditionally evaluated by Psychometrics. Sternberg treats love as a conjunction of three elements that metaphorically make up the vertices of a triangle.
It is expected that the three vertices combined explain the whole phenomenon of love. Intimacy is characterized by feelings of closeness and connection in the relationship.
Passion is the component responsible for physical and sexual attraction, for romance and the desire to be together, and for excitement. The majority of couples have the three dimensions present in their relationships Sternberg,however, other types of relationships in which some of the elements are present reveal the relative independence of the three vertices.
There are no Triangular love scale for the points in between Triangular love scale indicated. The triangular love scale still has the peculiarity of having a blank space in all 45 statements. This space should be filled with the name of the same loved one for all the items. The study of the STLS construct validation was conducted in the Triangular love scale States with the participation of 84 heterosexual adults.
Each scale was answered six times, describing the love for the mother, father, for a brother, for a friend of the same sex, for the person who they love and for an ideal lover. The quantification of the importance of the love was made by another group of participants for the six relationships described above. Nevertheless, the women obtained higher indices of the perception of love for the best friend and ideal lover.
Considering all the participants, the mean for the person they love and the ideal lover were much higher than for the others, especially in the Passion component Sternberg, The scale obtained excellent indices of internal consistency. All the alpha values were above 0. The correlation coefficients between the three subscales ranged from 0.
These high correlations can be credited to the fact that the scale has been applied with couples, a sample in which it Triangular love scale expected that all the components of the triangle are present in their relationships.
Not all the items saturated more strongly in the factor for which it was expected that this would occur Sternberg, Other psychometric studies, in various parts of the world, also found the same evidence of validity and reliability highlighted by Sternberg The original version of the STLS with the difference that the Likert scale had five points had several items saturating in more than one factor, however, found alphas between 0.
In this way, the items loaded in the intended factor and the alpha values remain very good between 0. In Brazil, reports have been increasing regarding the Triangular Theory of Love. In this sense, the first study found was that of Hernandez Triangular love scale, who investigated the factorial structure of the scale.
This study, however, has several limitations, such as a small sample size. This step was taken by Cavalcantiwho presents a discussion of the factor analysis of the scale in a larger sample participantssuggesting a reduced version of the STLS of 15 items.
The main findings in Brazil are that the dimensions of love have a practically null relationship with jealousy and the reactions to scenarios of infidelity Cavalcanti, Cassepp-Borges and Teodoro found that the Triangular love scale dimensions of love relate positively to the satisfaction in the relationships measured by a direct question with Triangular love scale Likert type scalealthough Passion goes in the multiple linear regression model in a negative way, due to a suppression effect.
Another important finding of that study is that which suggests that the dimensions of love reach ever higher levels according to the temporal phase of the relationship. The Brazilian studies to date, however, have had limited aims. The possibility cannot be ruled out that there are more people investigating the topic in Brazil, and that the studies were not located in this review paper.
With the exception for the study of Gouveia et al. All the studies worked with samples of university students. It should be noted that the majority of the studies are recent, which may represent a growth of interest in the Triangular Theory of Love.
It can be seen that several studies in Brazil have used the STLS, however, all the studies presented results in the area in which the scale was applied. Triangular love scale
In view of this, a study of national proportions of the scale is necessary. The present study principally aimed to verify the evidence of validity and reliability of the STLS in Brazil, also seeking to discover the parameters of difficulty and Triangular love scale of this scale, according to the Item Response Theory. This study had the participation of 1, people, the mean age was The total sample included 1, A questionnaire was applied with demographic questions, including gender, date of birth, course if it were a university student and sexual orientation.
In this questionnaire, it was asked that the participants write the name of someone they loved. From Triangular love scale, questions were asked about the type and length of relationship with that person.
All the items have a blank to be filled with the name of a Triangular love scale loved one, and are answered on a Likert type scale of 1 to 9. In a previous study Cassepp-Borges et al. Subsequently, all the items passed through semantic analysis and analysis by judges. Although there was no control over the Triangular love scale numbers, the applications of the questionnaires were, in general, collective. In some cases, there were individual applications. One task of the participants was to choose a person that they love and to respond to the survey based on their relationship with that person.
They were asked to preferably choose someone with whom they composed a loving couple. To determine the number of factors, the following criteria were independently considered: For these analyzes, the pairwise method was used to deal with missing cases, because it takes advantage of how the subject responded to calculate the correlation matrix. The item with the lowest number of respondents was chosen to determine the sample size in order to perform the parallel analysis.
Subsequently, the Principal Axis Factoring - PAF extraction was performed to determine the factor loadings of the items. The residual unexplained covariance was used in order to review the decision regarding the number of factors.
This Triangular love scale an a posteriori criterion, because it is performed after the extraction of the factors with the PAF. It consists of reproducing the correlation matrix from the factorial matrix. The difference between the original correlation matrix and the reproduced matrix is the residual covariance.
This analysis seeks a solution with low residual covariance and, at the same time, parsimony lower number of possible factors Pasquali, This theory has been used in order to determine these two parameters. According to Vendramini and Diasthe items with parameter a discrimination lower than 0. Bakerhowever, suggests categories of discrimination, treating discrimination lower than 0. The high indices of discrimination would be greater than 1.
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The items should still be distributed in different ranges of difficulty Pasquali, All the participants were asked to sign Terms of Free Prior Informed Consent in duplicate, with one copy remaining with the participant and the other given to the researcher. Initially, an analysis of the principal components of the ETAS was performed to determine the number of factors of the instrument. From there, the empirical and random eigenvalues and the explained variance for the components of the STLS Table 1 were taken as the criterion for deciding the number of components.
Although reported in a table, the eigenvalues described would be those used for producing the Scree plot graph. Table 1 shows that only three factors are sufficient to explain a high percentage of the variance of the STLS It is Triangular love scale that the Triangular love scale empirical eigenvalue is greater than the third random eigenvalue, however, the fourth empirical eigenvalue is smaller than the fourth random eigenvalue, suggesting three factors from the parallel analysis criteria.
Table 2 was constructed based on Table 1allowing the conclusion that the solution with three factors is most appropriate, as suggested by the Triangular Theory of Love. This decision is supported by the criterion of Harman, however, mainly by Triangular love scale parallel analysis, which is a more precise criterion for deciding the number of factors Laros, The choice of three factors is also confirmed by the analysis of residual unexplained covariance.
Therefore, Table 3 presents the factorial loadings in the three extracted factors and Triangular love scale one single general Triangular love scale. The communalities h 2 indicate the relationship of the item with the general construct of the scale love. In order to facilitate the comprehension of Table 3the items are identified according to the factor provided for them by Sternberg As can be seen, the three factors found are in fact provided by the Triangular Theory of Love Sternberg, The complex items loadings greater than 0.
Thus, nine items 04, 05, 07, 20, 33, 37, 38, 40, and 44 belong to two factors at the same time and one item 09 represents no factor included, however, in the calculations relating to the Triangular love scale of love - complete scale. All the items were considered for calculating the reliability of the STLS, since the lowest commonality was 0.
Thus, the scale obtained an alpha value equal to 0. The STLS was also analyzed according to the IRT, to check the properties of the items and to decide on ways to improve the scale with different Triangular love scale provided by the Classical Test Theory.
For this analysis, the assumptions of unidimensionality and of local independence must be met. As suggested by the results of the factor analyses and internal consistency, the assumption of unidimensionality was satisfied, both for the subscales and for the complete STLS, because the correlations between the items are high, and the three factors also Triangular love scale strong correlation.
The assumption of local independence states that the correlations between the items are due to the fact that they are influenced by a single latent variable, not because the response to one item influenced the response to Triangular love scale other.
This second assumption is more difficult to verify empirically Pasquali, However, because different studies Sternberg, ; Gouveia et al.
The first analysis indicated that the correlation matrix was singular, i. To resolve this problem, the parameter Scale was fixed at 1. Furthermore, this reduced the number of possible alternatives for responding to the items.
Probably in order to increase the variability of the responses, Sternberg chose to use Likert type scales with more alternatives, however, the increase in alternative means there is a greater number of estimations to be made.
Often items with three or four response alternatives provide Triangular love scale same information as items with seven or nine Nunes et al. Sternberg's Triangular Love Scale.
What are the components of your love relationship? Intimacy? Passion? Decision/commitment? All three components?.
This article presents a construct validation of a love scale based upon a triangular theory of love. The article opens with a review of some of the. Even though Sternberg's Triangular Love Scale (STLS) has been increasingly used in Brazilian research, all the relevant studies have been conducted at a state.